Guess who funded those studies!

If you guessed it was Monsanto, you are correct and yes, it is no surprise to be certain.

monsanto-corn-organ-damage


Republished article follows /images  added / source http://gmwatch.org/news/latest-news/17253


Glyphosate Spraying and Monsanto money

Surprise! Monsanto-funded papers conclude glyphosate not carcinogenic or genotoxic

Co-Formulants in Glyphosate-Based Herbicides Disrupt Aromatase Activity in Human Cells below Toxic Levels

Image added


Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(3), 264; doi:10.3390/ijerph13030264

Co-Formulants in Glyphosate-Based Herbicides Disrupt Aromatase Activity in Human Cells below Toxic Levels

1
Institute of Biology, University of Caen Normandy, EA2608 and Network on Risks, Quality and Sustainable Environment MRSH, Esplanade de la Paix, CS 14032, Caen Cedex 5, France
2
Agro-Environmental Research Institute, National Agricultural Research and Innovation Centre, H-1022, Herman Ottó u. 15, Budapest, Hungary
3
CRIIGEN, 81 rue Monceau, 75008 Paris, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Huixiao Hong
Received: 2 November 2015 / Revised: 19 January 2016 / Accepted: 15 February 2016 / Published: 26 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endocrine Disruptors and Public Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [5195 KB, uploaded 26 February 2016]   |

Abstract

Pesticide formulations contain declared active ingredients and co-formulants presented as inert and confidential compounds. We tested the endocrine disruption of co-formulants in six glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH), the most used pesticides worldwide. All co-formulants and formulations were comparably cytotoxic well below the agricultural dilution of 1% (18–2000 times for co-formulants, 8–141 times for formulations), and not the declared active ingredient glyphosate (G) alone. The endocrine-disrupting effects of all these compounds were measured on aromatase activity, a key enzyme in the balance of sex hormones, below the toxicity threshold. Aromatase activity was decreased both by the co-formulants alone (polyethoxylated tallow amine—POEA and alkyl polyglucoside—APG) and by the formulations, from concentrations 800 times lower than the agricultural dilutions; while G exerted an effect only at 1/3 of the agricultural dilution. It was demonstrated for the first time that endocrine disruption by GBH could not only be due to the declared active ingredient but also to co-formulants. These results could explain numerous in vivo results with GBHs not seen with G alone; moreover, they challenge the relevance of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) value for GBHs exposures, currently calculated from toxicity tests of the declared active ingredient alone.

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0).
MDPI and ACS Style

Defarge, N.; Takács, E.; Lozano, V.L.; Mesnage, R.; Spiroux de Vendômois, J.; Séralini, G.-E.; Székács, A. Co-Formulants in Glyphosate-Based Herbicides Disrupt Aromatase Activity in Human Cells below Toxic Levels. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 264.

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Abstract republished http://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/13/3/264 // Images added

Joint PR: Court Documents Reveal Oxitec’s Genetically Engineered Mosquitoes Could Cause Increased Numbers of Different Disease-Carrying Mosquitoes

 


GeneWatch UK – 2016

29th September 2016

Contact: Jaydee Hanson; +1-202-547-9359, jhanson@icta.org

WASHINGTON- Genetically engineered (GE) mosquito company Oxitec has admitted a major risk of its technology – reducing one mosquito species may increase the numbers of a second disease-carrying species. The information surfaced today when four environment and food safety groups including International Center for Technology Assessment, GeneWatch UK, Food and Water Watch and Friends of the Earth released court documents from the Cayman Islands. Oxitec, a subsidiary of Intrexon, applied for trial releases of its GE mosquito, which, according to the new information, would be inefficient and risky.

Oxitec previously denied that releasing millions of GE Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, with the aim of suppressing wild mosquito numbers, would result in increased numbers of the Aedes albopictus species (known as the Asian Tiger mosquito). The Aedes albopictus also transmits viral tropical diseases such as dengue and zika, and recently has been shown to be a vector of chikungunya, a devastating and sometimes lethal viral disease. The FDA recently approved trial releases of the GE mosquitoes in Florida.

 “These court documents show that Oxitec’s GE mosquito trials are not worth the risk. The State of Florida and its mosquito control boards have in the past effectively controlled disease from multiple mosquito species using much more benign approaches such as vaccines, screens, repellents, larvicides and removing breeding sites like abandoned tires,” said Jaydee Hanson, policy director of the International Center for Technology Assessment.

This new evidence from the Cayman Islands highlights that Oxitec is aware of a major flaw in its single-species, technological approach to eradicating disease-carrying mosquitoes. Oxitec makes clear that the release of the GE Asian Tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus might be needed if the release of the GE Aedes aegypti results in an increase of the numbers of Asian Tiger mosquitoes. Oxitec’s 2014 application to the Cayman Islands Department of Environment states, “Should Aedes albopictus begin to occupy the Aedes aegypti niche upon reduction in their numbers, a concurrent operation will begin to reduce the numbers of Aedes albopictus”.

“It might be a good business model for a company to sell a technology to reduce one mosquito species, so then they can also sell a technology to deal with the species that replaces it,” said Wenonah Hauter, executive director of Food & Water Watch. “But it’s not worth the effort, expense and potential risk for communities in the U.S. to start down this path.”

Aedes albopictus is a more invasive species than Aedes aegypti and can be found in all east coast U.S. states from Maine to Florida, all southern states, most Midwestern states and in the states along the US-Mexico border from Texas west to California.

“Current permits for releases should now be revoked until regulators recognise the downsides of Oxitec’s technology and the need to consider all the impacts on the ecosystem. The consequences of mass releases of GE mosquitoes could be harmful if other disease-carrying mosquito species move in as a result. Risk assessments in Brazil, the Cayman Islands and the USA need to be revised,” said Dr. Helen Wallace, director of GeneWatch UK.

 The company has also previously hid information about the mosquito’s potential to survive. Company data noted that 15 to 18 percent of its GE mosquitoes survive when fed on cat food containing industrially farmed chicken, which contains the antibiotic tetracycline. Environmental groups have warned that this could lead to the survival and spread of large numbers of GE mosquitoes, when they encounter this common antibiotic in the environment e.g. in discarded takeaways or septic tanks.

“Oxitec has misled the public about the risks. These GE mosquitoes may thrive in the wild or may lead to an increase in more aggressive mosquito populations,” said Dana Perls, senior food and technology campaigner with Friends of the Earth, U.S. “We should be using the least toxic alternatives that don’t have unintended consequences for our environment and health.”

Florida Keys residents will have a non-binding vote on whether they support the release of Oxitec’s genetically engineered Aedes aegypti mosquitoes on November 8, 2016. A separate but related vote will occur in Key Haven, Florida, where Oxitec has received permission from the Food and Drug Administration to release its GE Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in the first U.S. trial. Residents of Key Haven have strongly opposed the release of these mosquitoes.


Source http://www.genewatch.org/article.shtml?als%5bcid%5d=576198&als%5bitemid%5d=576847

Republished in full // images and emphasis added


 

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